eastern towhee (Pipilo erythrophthalmus)
CONFIRMATION STATUS: Confirmed.
Length: 7.25? inches
Red eye (white in southeastern birds)
Buffy undertail coverts
White primary bases and tertial edges
Long tail with white outer tail feathers
Male has black head, back, wings and tail-brown in female
Juvenile (summer) heavily streaked, brown above and buffy below
Frequently feeds on the ground where it noisily scratches for food
Formerly conspecific with spotted towhee
The eastern towhee is similar to the spotted towhee but lacks wing
bars and white spots on the back.
Migration Status: Short distance migrant
Breeding Habitat: Successional-scrub
Nest Location: Ground-low nesting
Nest Type: Open-cup
Clutch Size: 3-5
Length of Incubation: 12-13? days
Days to Fledge: 10-12
Number of Broods: 2, occasionally 3 in south
Diet: Mostly nuts, seeds fruit; lesser quantities of insects
SKY MEADOWS DISTRIBUTION/SEASONAL OCCURRENCE
Relative abundance and seasonal occurrence are indicated in red below.
C - Common: Likely to be present in good numbers in appropriate habitat and season.
U - Uncommon: May be present in appropriate habitat and season, often in low
O - Occassional: Found in appropriate habitat perhaps only a few times per season,
sometimes low numbers.
R - Rare: May not be recorded every year.
Acc - Accidental: Recorded once or twice, may not be expected again for a long time.
Sp - Spring: March, April, May C
Su - Summer: June, July, August C
Fall: September, October, November C
Winter: December, January, February U
Crooked Run Valley