least flycatcher (Empidonax minimus)
CONFIRMATION STATUS: Confirmed.
Length: 4.5 inches
Lower mandible orange
Breast has olive wash
Whitish throat, belly and undertail coverts
Wing bars-white in adults, buffy in juveniles
Breeding habitat is deciduous woods
The empidonax flycatchers are very difficult to tell apart. The safest
way to differentiate them is by habitat, range, and voice in the breeding
season. Differences in plumage due to molt, wear and age make the
plumage quite variable. The least flycatcher is the smallest empidonax
with a small bill that makes the head look big. Yellow-bellied flycatcher
is similar in size and shape but is greener above and yellower below.
Willow and alder have less obvious eye rings, longer tails and browner
upperparts. Acadian is larger, bigger-billed, greener above, and yellower
below. In the west, Hammond's is typically darker on the breast. Dusky
and gray are larger and Pacific-slope and Cordilleran have oval eye rings,
are larger, and yellower underneath.
Migration Status: Neotropical migrant
Breeding Habitat: Woodland
Nest Location: Mid-story/canopy nesting
Nest Type: Open-cup
Clutch Size: 3-6
Length of Incubation: 13-14 days
Days to Fledge: 12-16
Number of Broods: 1, 2 in south
Diet: Almost exclusively insects; lesser quantities of fruit
SKY MEADOWS DISTRIBUTION/SEASONAL OCCURRENCE
Relative abundance and seasonal occurrence are indicated in red below.
C - Common: Likely to be present in good numbers in appropriate habitat and season.
U - Uncommon: May be present in appropriate habitat and season, often in low
O - Occassional: Found in appropriate habitat perhaps only a few times per season,
sometimes low numbers.
R - Rare: May not be recorded every year.
Acc - Accidental: Recorded once or twice, may not be expected again for a long time.
Sp - Spring: March, April, May Acc
Su - Summer: June, July, August Acc
Fall: September, October, November
Winter: December, January, February
Crooked Run Valley