top of page

Architecture Sites: Industrial Development


The valley also began to develop an industrial element during this period

in the form of mills and distilleries. Prior to the Civil War, there were six

mills operating along Crooked Run-four ofwhich were within two miles

of one another. Only the Grisgby-Fleetwood Mill (1813) remains extant.

This mill, which has been restored, is an impressive two-and-a-hall-story

stone building with large stone lintels above the doorways and window

openings. The mill, located on tlie west side of Route 17 about two miles

south of Paris, is located on the east bank of the Crooked Run. Fleetwood

was operated as a roller mill, which produced bleached flour. The other

valley mills are now only sites, though some of the houses occupied by

the millers are still extant. Among the mill sites known in the Crooked

Run Valley are the enterprises known as Lemert's or Boston's mill (1798-

1799); the Paris mill located at Ovoka (ca.l805); William Henry Ashby's

mill (ca. l812); Histead's grist and saw mill on the Ben Lomond farm

(1818); Yerby's or Simper's mill (ca.1818); Cropp's mill, which was a

fulling mill that cleaned newly woven woolen cloth and was built on land

owned by George Ash (pre-1829) (near Route 623); Absalom Hickman's

mill on Mount Carlo (ca. 1831); and a woolen mill run by John Holland at Brookside--one of only four "clothier works" in the county (1837). As

previously mentioned, Hezekiah Turner, established a mill, no longer

extant, near his home of Summerset around 1779; when Lemert's mill

was constructed in 1798, it was only the second mill to be built on

Crooked Run. Some of these mills were casualties of the Civil War,

though at least three of the buildings (Fleetwood, Yerby's, and Lemert's)

survived into the twentieth century. Several of the millers' houses have

survived including Yerby's, the miller's log house at Ovoka, Fleetwood's,

and Lemert's.


Distilleries were another common industrial building in the valley during

the nineteenth century. As these were distinctly social places, they were

often located near mills and were frequented by farmers who were waiting

for their grain to be ground. One such distillery and a tavern were built near Lemert's Mill on Route 688 (Leeds Manor Road). This distillery, the location

of which was depicted on a Civil War era map as "Crupper's," was probably

built during the last decade of the eighteenth century or the first decade of the nineteenth century. Foundation stones of the distillery and tavern are said to

exist on the property. The site of another distillery, though of a later date, is located on the east side of Route 17 near Sky Hill. The stone building stand-

ing at the site was used as a warehouse. Benjamin Triplctt of Hillandale (Highfield) also operated a distillery, which was active during the Civil War.


Tanneries also began to appear in the valley during this period. According

to Chappelear, prior to the Civil War there were three tanneries within six

miles of Paris, one of them, the Kendall & Son tanyard, was located in Paris

on the west side of Federal Street." Though an early-nineteenth-century log dwelling is located at this site, no other buildings associated with the tanyard remain.


It has been noted in earlier architectural surveys of the valley that some area resources appear to date from an earlier period since historical styles and

plans continued in the region for many years, such as the continued use of

the side-hall plan, a late-eighteenth- and early-nineteenth-century fashion,

into the mid- and even late nineteenth century . This phenomenon is not

unique to the Crooked Run Valley and is apparent in many rural areas

of the state and is especially true of vernacular constructions. The early sec-

tion of the John B. Jeffries house is an example of a mid-nineteenth century dwelling (probably constructed around 1850) that has the appearance of an

early-nineteenth-century side-passage house.


Another notable characteristic of valley resources of this period, which con-

tinued into the late nineteenth century and early twentieth century, is the

additive nature of many dwellings. Often additional rooms were constructed

to an existing dwelling, the roof of a one-story dwelling was raised to add a

second story, or an earlier dwelling was actually subsumed within a larger dwelling. These actions were related to practical and functional needs as

families grew and residents became more prosperous and sought additional material comforts. Mount Independence is an example of an earlier log

dwelling, constructed by John Grigsby, to which a later owner, John Thomas Chunn, constructed a one-and-a-half-story frame addition on the north around 1779, and then added a two-story brick addition to the frame addition around 1820. In the late twentieth century, the entire structure was enveloped by a

new dwelling.


Beginning in 1780, a crossroads settlement began to grow up at the inter-

section of the Winchester-Dumfries Road (Route 17) and the Ashby's Gap Turnpike (Route 50). The latter served as the town's Main Street until the twentieth century when it was re-routed north of the village. Though streets

had been laid and lots sold by Peter Glascock since about 1790, it was not

until 1810 that the village was formally established by an act of the General Assembly. The town was to be located on a tract of 46 acres and an addition-

al tract of 14 acres from the George Carter land grant of 1731. The act estab-

lishing the town stated that the 60 acres were the property of Peter C. Rust,

Peter Glascock, and a part of the Manor of Leeds." Glascock's vision of a

town with 14 developed streets never materialized, stifled in part by the se-

lection of a site further south for the route of the Manassas Gap Railroad.

Local lore states that the town was once known as Pun'kinville (or, Pump-

kinville), though when Glascock organized his plan, he named the village

Paris, in honor of the Marquis de Lafayette, whom Glascock had admired

during his time as a soldier in the American evolution. Though Paris was

an early town established in the county, the first town established was

Maidstone, later Rectortown, located south and east of Paris.


Two taverns were in operation during the period of Paris's early develop-

ment. The building locally referred to as the "Wagoner's Stand," located

at 634 Federal Street, was operated as a tavern by Isaac Settle. The tavern

operated during the early nineteenth century and continued into the mid-

nineteenth century. A tavern was operated at the southern intersection of the Winchester Road and Ashby's Gap Turnpike (on a tract owned by Kimball

Hicks), as early as 1782. Peter Glascock later operated the tavern, which

became locally known as Ashby's Tavern when Thomason Ashby operated

the tavern from 1825 until his death in 1850. His wife then continued with

the tavern until 1874. The tavern building was destroyed in 1939 and a new service station/hotel was built at the site.


Glascock also provided for a public meeting place in his town by donating

a lot on Republican Street for the construction of a free meetinghouse. The

one-story brick building, laid in five-course American bond and constructed around 1830, has a rectangular plan covered by a side-facing, slate-covered

gable roof and had two entrances on the front (east) elevation. Throughout

its history, the building has served as a church, school, and residence. Part

of its history is associated with the African American population in Paris

who used the building as a school and church until a new Methodist church building was constructed (1880) further north on Republican Street (since destroyed).


The majority of historic architectural resources in Paris are located on Fed-

eral Street. While there are several early-nineteenth-century log dwellings

in the village, many of the Paris dwellings are of frame or brick and exhibit

the prosperity of the residents and the influence of the Federal style in the

use of fanlights, interior-end chimneys, and their overall symmetry of form. Dwellings that incorporate log constructions dating to ca. 1810-1820 in-

clude the Beny-Edmonds house, the Neffhouse, the former tannery house,

and the Josiah Murray house. Notable among the Federal-style brick dwell-

ings in Paris is La Grange, Glascock's own home which is located on the

north side of present-day Route 50. The five-bay symmetry of the two-and-

a-half-story dwelling, the use of Flemish bond, exterior-end chimneys, and classically inspired mouldings are hallmarks of the Federal style. Likewise,

the Kendall house, a two-story, five-bay brick dwelling, is a good example

of Federal era architecture in the village of Paris. Its balanced design includes

a centrally located entrance with an elliptical fanlight above, sidelights, and classically inspired door surround. Though the main surface of the house has

been covered with stucco, the brick jack arches above the windows and the

arch above the entrance are still visible. The two exterior-end chimneys have

also been clad with stucco, as has the high foundation, which is most likely



Construction of the main house at Ovoka, which lies adjacent to Paris on the southwest side, was undertaken around 1840. The farm, the name of which is

said to mean "ever running water," contains numerious springs, including a sulphur spring, and several mountain streams converge in the level meadow

in front of the house. Though the farm may have served as a homesite for

earlier settlers, the present dwelling dates to thr early nineteenth century.

Since then, the house has been remodeled and added to, including the con-

struction ofthe full-height classical front portico in the twentieth century

when most of the current farm buildings also were built. Until recent-

ly, Ovoka was the property of the Thomas family, who had lived there for

over 50 years. In 2000, the Piedmont Environmental Council (PEC) acquired

1,240 acres of the farm for the purpose of protecting the land with conserva-

tion easements and placing it back in private or public ownership. PEC

recently conveyed 445 acres of the property to the National Park Service

for relocation of the Appalachian Trail, which runs along the crest of the

Blue Ridge Mountains within the historic district. PEC also has an option

to purchase a conservation easement on the remaining 250 acres of the farm

that were conveyed with the house. Ovoka, a widely recognized property

located in the Crooked Run Valley, is one of the most visible farms in the

region given its proximity to Route 50 and Paris.


Within the rest of the valley, dwellings and outbuildings built during the

first half of the nineteenth century also reflected the Federal and Greek

Revival styles of the period. The center section of Belle Grove was con-

structed in 1812 by Isaac Settle on land formerly held by John Edmonds,

Jr., who had acquired it from the heirs of James Ball. The two-and-a-half-

story, five-bay brick dwelling evidences Federal-style influences in its

symmetry, fine Flemish brickwork, elaborate fanlight and door surround,

brick interior-end chimneys, and paneled, double-leaf doors. The dwelling

is notable for its use of brick on the front, sides, and wing, while stone and

stucco were used on the rear (west) elevation. The aptly named dwelling

known as Stonebourne, also known as the Jackson house and located west

of Route 724 (Pleasant Vale Road), is a two-story stone dwelling with large

stone end chimneys that was built around 1840. The three-bay house features

a center-hall plan and Greek Revival proportions. An entry porch, no longer extant, was located on the east side of the house. Like the earlier Edgehill, Stonebourne is a notable example of stone conshuction in the valley.


Of the high-style dwellings from the first half of the nineteenth century, the

most notable is Ashleigh, which has been listed individually on the National Register and its early-nineteenth-century complement of outbuildings. The dwelling was built around 1840 for and purportedly designed by Margaret Marshall Smith, the granddaughter of Chief Justice John Marshall, whose

home Oak Hill lies just south of the historic district. Smith designed the

house in a vernacular interpretation of the Greek Revival style, examples

which she is said to have admired on a trip to the Deep South. ' ' Ashley is

also significant as a work of William S. Sutton, a local "carpenter" and master builder who also worked at Woodside, a dwelling constructed ca. 1800 and enlarged in 1851 with Greek Revival-style detailing. Luke Woodward, the

mason who worked with Siltton on the 1851 enlargement of Woodside, creat-

ed a handsome two-story brick addition to the house, which became its front facade. The Greek Revival design includes hll-height brick pilasters that separ-

ate the three bays of thc, faqade. The recessed doorway, holding a double-leaf entrance door, is emphasized by an elaborate surround of a shouldered arch-

itrave and multi-paned sidelights and transom. This section of the house is

covered by a low-pitched, metal-clad hipped roof pierced by two interior brick chimneys. Woodside also contains a fine collection of log outbuildings dating

to the early nineteenth century. Another notable high-style Greek Revival

dwelling in the district is Ashland, which was constructed in 1831 and was

later enlarged. The two-story brick and stucco dwelling features interesting parapet end walls and several stucco outbuildings are also on the property.


Two churches located in the historic district were constructed in the Ante-

bellum decades. The Pleasant Vale Baptist Church, located at the intersec-

tion of Route 724 (Pleasant Vale Road) and 826 (Scuffleburg Road), was constructed in 1845 on land donated by the Adams family and exhibits

influence of the Greek Revival style with its pedimented gable front, dec-

orative cornice, and in its overall proportions. The one-and-a-half-story

brick church, set on a stone foundation, is laid in three-course American

bond and holds two entrance doors on the east end with four-light transoms

above with windows above each door on the second-story level. Tall

multipaned windows are arranged symmetrically on the north and south

sides of the church with stone lintels and sills. The church building is largely unaltered from its original appearance. On the eve of the Civil War, the

Emmanuel Episcopal Church was consecrated (1859). The one-and-a-half-

story, frame church, exhibiting classically inspired details in its moulded

comice and gable-end returns and round-arched openings, was constructed

on land donated by Margaret Marshall Smith and her husband, John Thomas Smith. Though a sacristy was added to the church in 1890 and stained glass replaced the original plain glass windows, Emmanuel Episcopal retains its

original character and is a well-known landmark along Route 17. Several

notable valley residents are buried in the cemetery that surrounds the church.


The Edwards Academy, also known as Piedmont Academy, was constructed

in 1854 and is one of the earliest resources in the historic district that reflects

the educational history of the valley. The Academy, whose first headmaster

was Francis M. Edwards, was founded to provide a classical education for

young men in the area. A frame dwelling known as Woodbum was located

nearby and early on served as a dormitory. The house burned in 1944. Located south of Route 623 (Jacksontown Road), the school building is now in ruinous condition with only the side walls remaining, though the present owner is interested in restoring the school.


Located at the confluence of Goose Creek and Crooked Run, the village

now known as Delaplane developed after the arrival of the Manassas Gap

Railroad in 1852. The village, situated on land that was once part ofthe

2,132- acre estate of Moore F. Carter, grandson of Landon Carter who

received a grant for the land in 1731, was strategically located where the

railroad crossed the main road from Warrenton to Winchester. The Virginia General Assembly chartered the railroad company in 1850 and the Manassas

Gap Railroad was to link the Orange and Alexandria Railroad at Manassas

with Strasburg in the Shenandoah Valley. The village was initially known

as Piedmont Station, or just Piedmont, the name it retained until 1874, when

it was renamed Delaplane. As with numerous other towns in Virginia,

Piedmont developed along the rail lines that provided a fast and less

expensive means of shipping agricultural goods and of receiving manufac-

tured products from the east and north. Piedmont Station joined towns such

as Marshall and The Plains in Fauquier County as important shipping points within the county. Architecturally, the village encompasses mid-nineteenth-

to early-twentieth-century examples of domestic, commercial, industrial, mercantile, and residential buildings.


Shortly after the railroad was laid in 1852, two large, almost identical, brick buildings were built just south of the tracks and a third building, that was exclusively a train station, sat just east of the buildings. The latter has been demolished. The two large brick buildings, one a two-story warehouse and

the other a store, are attached by a wooden deck; the bulldings are rare ex-

amples of antebellum brick buildings associated with the railroad, and are

two of a very few that survive in Virginia. The brick dwelling located at

3322 Rokeby Road was also constructed around 1852 and exhibits elements

of the late Greek Revival and the Italianate styles. A mid-nineteenth-century

frame meat house and a stone icehouse are also on the property.


While Piedmont Station prospered, development in the village of Paris

drew to a halt. Though still located at the intersection of heavily traveled roadways, the railroad began to supersede the importance of these earlier transportation routes. Commercial enterprises, such as Settle's Tavern and

wagon stop, slowly began to fade from prominence. It would not be until

the early twentieth century that Paris once again revived.



Back to Architecture Sites

Home Page

Nature Guide






















Home Page

Park Activities

   Calendar of Events
Volunteer Programs

   Park Regulations

Sky Meadows Park
   Visiting Park

   Virtual Tours

Crooked Run Valley

   Historic District

   Architecture Sites

   Mt. Bleak

   Historical Events

   Park History


Special Projects

   Blue Bird

   Biodiversity Survey


bottom of page