whitetailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus)
CONFIRMATION STATUS: Confirmed.
CHARACTERISTICS: The height at the shoulders is 90-105 cm, length
134-206 cm, and weight (M) 90-135 kg (F) 67-112 kg. They are tan or
reddish brown in the summer and grayish brown in the winter. The under-
side and throat are white, the tail brown above and white below. The males
have antlers with main beam forward and several unbranched tines. Fawns
are reddish brown and white spotted. The breeding season is from late
September through February, and concentrated in the last two weeks
of November and they usually produce1-3 fawns each year. They are
most active during periods of subdued light. From February through
August bucks are generally in small groups, during other times, bucks
are generally solitary and in the fall, bucks, with hardened antlers,
challenge each other for control of a harem of does. Predation is mainly
in the form of harassment by dogs. Fawns may be taken by bobcat.
Mortality factors include hunting, motor vehicles, poaching, depredation,
dogs, fences, cripples, and trains respectively.
DISTRIBUTION: The white-tailed deer is common throughout the
state. The preferred habitat is mixed forest of moderate age, croplands
adjacent to forested areas, and early forest successional stages near
mature forest. They occur in many habitats from the swamps of the
Eastern Shore to the mountains in the west.
FOODS: This species consumes herbaceous plant parts, woody plant
parts, herbaceous fruit and fleshy fungi. They generally consume herb-
aceous vegetation in spring, summer. Acorns, fruits and crops are taken
in the fall, and browse evergreen vegetation in winter. They feed in fields
and openings and retreat to forest for cover.
Crooked Run Valley