willow flycatcher (Empidonax traillii)
CONFIRMATION STATUS: Confirmed.
Length: 4.75? inches
Indistinct eye ring
Lower mandible orange
Breast has olive wash
Whitish throat, belly and undertail coverts
Formerly conspecific with alder flycatcher and called Traill's flycatcher
Breeding habitat is scrubby areas-for example: bogs, abandoned fields
The empidonax flycatchers are very difficult to tell apart. The safest
way to differentiate them is by habitat, range, and voice in the breeding
season. Differences in plumage due to molt, wear and age make the
plumage quite variable. This species is extremely similar to the alder
flycatcher and was once considered the same species. It often has a less
noticeable eye ring and browner, less olive, upperparts; however, most
individuals cannot be identified with certainty by sight. Acadian and
yellow-bellied flycatchers tend to be greener above and yellower below
than the willow flycatcher. Least flycatcher is grayer above, smaller,
shorter-tailed and has a more distinct eye ring. Western United States
empidonax flycatchers have darker lower mandibles and more obvious
eye rings. Gray is grayer above and rangier. Hammond's is smaller,
darker-chested and has a grayer throat. Pewees are quite similar but
are larger, have different vocalizations and typically forage higher in the
Migration Status: Neotropical migrant
Breeding Habitat: Successional-scrub
Nest Location: Ground-low nesting
Nest Type: Open-cup
Clutch Size: 3-4
Length of Incubation: 12-13 days
Days to Fledge: 12-14
Number of Broods: 1
Diet: Almost exclusively insects; lesser quantities of fruit
SKY MEADOWS DISTRIBUTION/SEASONAL OCCURRENCE
Relative abundance and seasonal occurrence are indicated in red below.
C - Common: Likely to be present in good numbers in appropriate habitat and season.
U - Uncommon: May be present in appropriate habitat and season, often in low
O - Occassional: Found in appropriate habitat perhaps only a few times per season,
sometimes low numbers.
R - Rare: May not be recorded every year.
Acc - Accidental: Recorded once or twice, may not be expected again for a long time.
Sp - Spring: March, April, May U
Su - Summer: June, July, August U
Fall: September, October, November
Winter: December, January, February
Crooked Run Valley